International Conference on Emerging trends in Management – ICETM 2012

Mohammad Ali Jinnah University Islamabad, Pakistan is holding International Conference on Emerging trends in Management – ICETM 2012 on May 18-19 in Islamabad, Pakistan. The conference aims to provide a forum for exchange of ideas on the latest business developments in the field of Management among researchers and practitioners in universities and industries and to seek opportunities for collaboration among the participants. The conference features key note speeches, engaging workshops and panel discussions. For details, visit conference website at 2012

 The organizing committee ICETM 2012 invites papers on (but not limited to) the following:
 ·HRM Practices
 ·Performance Evaluation
 ·Training and Development
 ·Information Management
 ·eCommerce and eBusiness
 ·Innovation Management
 ·Project Management
 ·Organizational Ethics
 ·Financial Markets
 ·Capital Markets
 · Relevant Topics

Selected papers from conference proceedings will be published in Jinnah Business Review (JBR, ISSN 2070 0296).

Author’s Schedule
Deadline for submission of papers           :              January   30, 2012
Notification of acceptance of papers        :              April   02, 2012
Last date of registration                          :               May   02, 2012
Conference                                            :               May   18-19, 2012

Additional Deadlines:                  
Non authors registration starts                  :               May 10, 2012
Non authors registration ends                   :               May 17, 2012

Please register (FREE) at to submit paper(s)/ participate in the conference. Contact at for your queries.

Scholarships in Korean University

Chosun University Korea is offering scholarships for international students for 2012 Spring semester. Important dates are as follows:

Application Deadline
November 30, 2011
Admission Announcement
December 30, 2011
Registration Deadline
January 31, 2012
First day of class
March 2, 2012

You need the following documents for admission:

Required Documents
1. Application Form for Graduate School
2. Self Introduction
3. Study Plan
4. Letter of Recommendation 
5. Request for Academic Credentials Verification
6. Check List for Application Documents
7 Diploma from undergraduate institution(s)
8. Transcript from undergraduate institution(s)
9. Diploma(s) from graduate institution(s) - Doctorate Only
10. Transcript from graduate institution(s) – Doctorate Only
11. Official certificate of language score(TOEFL, IELTS, TEPS, TOPIK)
12. A Copy of passport
13. 2 Photos(3.5cm * 4.5cm, Background color should be white)
14. A Certificate of financial responsibility over USD 10,000
15. Application fee
Below is the documents to submit additionally(Only Chinese Applicants)
1.      Copy of Citizen Card for whole family
2.      Higher Education Qualification Certificate issued by
3.      Original Copy of household register
4.      Certificate of Enrollment at Workplace & Certificate of Income

For application form and further details, visit the following links:

Link for Graduate Addmision

Link for Undergradute Addmision

How To Write a (Thesis / Dissertation) Proposal

1. Know the area
a. Read, read, read, …
b. Average 10-15 papers per week
c. Current Journals: at least read/scan abstracts
d. Use reference management software! (e.g. ProCite and EndNote)
e. Use search engines (MedLine, Ergo Abstracts, Psych Info, Compendex, ACM Digital Library, etc.)
f. Go to the source literature (don’t expect textbooks and other secondary sources to be either accurate or complete)
2. Go outside your area
a. Good source of new/different ideas
b. Avoids embarrassing overlap (already done by others in another field)
3. Pay attention to methods, analyses, motivations, applications
a. We did this because …
b. This work can be applied to …
4. Tree-in; tree-out
a. Look at paper citations, and who cited particular papers (ISI Citation Index)
b. Note how others interpreted (or how cited) papers you’ve already read; they may have a different interpretation
5. Don’t get ‘paper-locked’
a. Easy to get overwhelmed and biased by what has already been done
b. Once familiar with an area, what has and hasn’t been done, start working on what you could do
6. Look at proposals and documents generated by your predecessors

At this point, generate some initial ideas. Be creative, flexible, novel. Good idea to test them, if possible.

The proposal itself:
Be professional. Dress appropriately (even if faculty don’t!).
Should you bring refreshments? It’s certainly appreciated but definitely not needed or expected.

Jumping ahead, what does a faculty member look for in a proposal?
My opinions here, so don’t blame me!
Most, though, see it as a “contract”: “If you do this work, do it well and write it up well, we won’t later claim that it’s not appropriate or sufficient”

1. It should be well-written
a. Organized, with a logical flow
b. Concise, but also complete
c. Good grammar
d. It’s usually a good idea to have a colleague read it before giving it to the advisor, especially if they have already submitted their first draft or successfully defended their proposal. Often little errors or small changes will be identified and addressed. They can also be some the best sources of information for “why” or “how”.
2. General structure is typically followed, but there is flexibility in the details
a. Introduction (Background, Motivations, Literature review)
b. Objective/Purposes/Hypothesis (need not be a separate section, but often is)
c. Methods
d. Preliminary Results
3. Introduction
a. It’s not a literature review! It should be a summary of existing evidence that motivates your specific, proposed work.
b. Start broad (e.g. injuries, need for ergonomics, etc.), become increasingly specific
c. End with a review, and broaden out to discuss potential applications (importance) of the proposed work
d. Topics to be addressed: what’s been done; what hasn’t; what is needed and why; indicate your part or contribution (scoping your domain)
e. Intro should contain some statements of objectives, purposes, and hypothesis. Placement is flexible, though, and these could be in separate sections between Intro and Methods, or even part of the Methods. Depending on the specifics, not all of these (objective, purposes, and hypotheses) will always been relevant. More important that it be clear and readable.
f. How long should it be? Long enough to satisfy the above goals. Typically 10-30 pages for an MS, longer for a PhD proposal.
g. When summarizing existing literature, it is not enough just to describe what authors X, Y, and Z did. Results should be interpreted, in the context of the overall review and study objectives.
h. In particular, discuss contrasting evidence, possible sources for discrepancies (experimental design, lack of controls, sensitivity of measures, etc.), and the importance of resolving the differences.
i. Summarize evidence, rarely individual studies.
4. Objectives/Purposes
a. Non-quantitative, but specific and clearly filling some hole/need addressed in the Introduction.
b. The Intro should have motivated and “scoped” the stated objectives and purposes.
5. Hypotheses
a. Non-quantitative, but again specific and clear.
b. There should be obvious connections to the objectives; addressing (proving) your hypotheses supports achieving your objectives
c. There must be clear (though not stated here) indications of how statistical methods would be used to evaluate the hypotheses. In the methods, your statistical tests should make reference to these hypotheses.
d. Not every statistical test should have an associated hypothesis (otherwise it would be unwieldy); instead, the hypotheses can be general (e.g. there will be an association among several variables; factors A and B will have effects on several measures of performance).
e. Don’t use words like ‘significant’, save this for the description of statistical methods.
6. Methods
a. What will be done, how, and why? In particularly “why” (why this IV, why these levels, why this measure, …)
b. With respect to how and why, there is typically more than one way to do
something, and you must explain (and sometimes justify) your choice.
c. The methods should have clear connections to the hypotheses.
d. The Methods tends to be a difficult and sometimes complicated section. In general, proceed from broad to specific, but also ensure that a context is provided before specific details are raised. For example, don’t describe specific experimental treatments before you’ve even explained the overall approach and the different independent and dependent variables.
e. For widely-used and generally accepted approaches, just summarize with reference to the literature. For other approaches, more explanation and justification needed.
f. Note that ‘repeated measures’ refers to a study design, while within- and between-subjects refers to specific independent measures (or treatments). Nested and between-subjects factors are synonymous.
g. The reader should be able to understand what you’re talking about, given what was provided before (use of a colleague again helps here).
h. Subsections are often used such as: Overview; Participants; Procedures; Instrumentation; Experimental Design; Data Reduction; Analysis (stats)
i. The specific ordering of the sections in g., should achieve the goals of d. and f.
j. Somewhere (typically in Experimental Design), there should be an explicit statement of the independent and dependent variables (or factors, or measures)
7. Limitations, expected results, contribution, future work (don’t leave the reader to guess these)

So how do I get there? Unfortunately, this is as much an art as a science, but here are some things to consider:

1. Some General Tips:
a. Each paragraph proceeds from general to specific.
b. Some have suggested that reading the first sentence of every paragraph in the document should convey the essential meaning of the whole.
c. Vary the structure of your sentences and paragraphs.
d. Use transitions between paragraphs (either the last sentence of the proceeding one or the first sentence of the subsequent one, should tie the two together).
e. Avoid one-sentence paragraphs (generally at least 3 sentences comprise a paragraph)
f. Consider optional presentation methods (always using good HF knowledge and practice). Often the same thing can be conveyed by text, graphs, tables, diagrams, etc. Pick what is the most effective, but avoid duplication.
g. Get in the habit of writing (and reading, in a special way, as noted earlier). As a student, it helped me to write something every day, even if it was brief, and even if I didn’t later use it. It also helped (and still does) to write down my thoughts.
2. Some common mistakes to avoid:
a. Repetitive sentence structure (The… The… The… or However, … Additionally, … Therefore, …)
b. Avoid complex words and convoluted sentence constructions, where simpler ones will convey the information (like utilize vs. use; cognizant vs. aware; though personal style always has a role). Eschew obfuscation!
c. There is no advantage to be gained by making something obscure. The scientific value is not enhanced by complicated words and prose, and to someone that knows the field, you don’t sound any more knowledgeable. If you look at some of the best journals, they are typically written in a very dry, boring, direct, and terse style. It tends to be the weaker journals where creative writing flourishes!

Weekly US Scholarships Updates

I. Financial Aid

UG: International Student Scholarships for Women at St. Catherine University
UG: Bryant University Academic Scholarships
UG: Hamline University Merit Scholarships
UG/Grad/Postgrad: Monmouth University Financial Assistance Programs
UG/Grad/Postgrad: Westminster College Music Scholarships

II. Campus News

• University of Louisiana Monroe Announces Honors Program for International Students
• New Video: PTE Academic Test for English Proficiency
• International Students Get a Little Country
• Register Now: EdUSA Connect Live Presentations on Completing Your Application
• Ithaca College Waives Application Fee for International Students
• Virginia International University Visits Mongolian Embassy

I. Financial Aid


St. Catherine University is pleased to announce that we are now accepting applications for admission and partial scholarships for the 2012-2013 academic year. Our scholarships for female bachelor's-level students in any major range between $4,000 - $18,000 annually. Scholarships are awarded upon admission and are renewable based on satisfactory academic progress.

The largest scholarship can cover 45% of tuition, room & board costs. Awards are based on academic merit and financial need. Priority scholarship deadline is March 15, 2012. Interested students should request application materials by sending an email to
For more information, please visit:


Bryant University is a nationally recognized, private university located in New England. Its 144-year tradition in education has transformed and empowered students, enabling them to realize their personal best in life and their future professions. Bryant University is committed to providing the highest quality education at a reasonable cost.

Academic scholarships at Bryant range from $6,000-$30,000. They are renewable for four years provided the student maintains the required GPA. Students are eligible for academic scholarships regardless of whether they apply for and/or qualify for need-based aid.
For more information, please visit:


Founded in 1854, Hamline University was the first university in Minnesota. Hamline is a high-quality university with more than 4,500 students in its undergraduate, graduate, and law school programs. Hamline brings together a wide and diverse group of students from more than 56 countries around the world.

Merit scholarships at Hamline University are separated into two categories: Academic Scholarships and Additional Scholarships. Students may receive one academic and one or more additional scholarships. In addition, students have the opportunity to earn up to $2,500 per year by securing a job on campus.
For more information, please visit:


Monmouth University is a dynamic, first-tier, private university that empowers students to reach their full potential as leaders able to make significant contributions to their community and society.

Monmouth University is affordable through various financial assistance programs. While Monmouth is a private university, Monmouth is also committed to helping you find solutions that will enable you to enroll, graduate, and capitalize on this important, once-in-a-lifetime investment. We will work with you and your family to establish a financial partnership and develop options that will make Monmouth a reality for you.
For more information, please visit:


Westminster College in Salt Lake City offers four-year music scholarships to qualifying students. The Department of Music at Westminster College offers a Bachelor of Arts degree in music. The major offers a choice of emphasis: academic or performance. The BA degree in music is an excellent choice for talented students who plan to pursue graduate work in music, and for liberal arts students pursuing two majors in preparation for graduate school.

It is also a degree that would qualify students for any number of music-related jobs following college. All prospective music majors must audition to be considered for admission into the Music Program at Westminster. Auditions for entrance into the Music Department are held year round; however, scholarship auditions for the 2012-2013 academic year end March 17, 2012.

To receive a music scholarship, you must maintain a GPA of 3.0. To apply for the scholarship, students must apply to Westminster BEFORE the music audition dates. 2012 auditions will be on: January 14, February 11, and March 17.
For more information, please visit:

II. Campus News


The University of Louisiana Monroe (ULM) Honors Program seeks intellectually curious students who desire to challenge themselves with new ideas and to work with similarly motivated students. The program is open to all nationalities in all degree programs.

Honor students are exposed to more in-depth topics and work closely with the Honors Faculty. Discover the ULM Honors Program. Discover ULM. Once you have applied for University admissions and submitted your transcripts and test scores, you will be notified of scholarship opportunities and eligibility for the Honors Program.
For more information, please visit:


Pearson Test of English (PTE) Academic is a revolutionary computer-based test for non-native speakers of English who need to demonstrate their academic English capability.

There are featured benefits of the PTE Academic, including more detailed feedback, flexible test scheduling at convenient locations, less than 3 hours in duration, results within 5 days and unlimited score reports!
For more information, please visit:


The American farm is iconic the world over, and a group of international students from Pittsburg State University got a chance to see one up close.

The students, from Saudi Arabia, China, Vietnam, Taiwan and Colombia, are all members of Christine Mekkaoui’s intensive English program. They visited Hickory Creek Farms west of Pittsburg Thursday afternoon to navigate the vast corn maze, go on hay rides, watch livestock races and learn about American farming history.
For more information, please visit:


Did you know that the application process can vary across the more than 4,900 accredited colleges and universities in the United States? In addition, application packages require a great deal of preparation and planning. It is very important to start this process early in order to complete all of the application requirements and meet deadlines for successful admission.

Join us online where experts from the U.S. higher education community will offer invaluable insight on how to submit your application at colleges and universities across the U.S.!

Participation is free – don’t miss this unique opportunity!
For more information, please visit:


Ithaca College is happy to announce that our application fee is now waived for all international applicants! International students should select the "Institutional Fee Waiver" option on the The Common Application when submitting their admission application. We hope this will make submitting an application for students just a bit easier!

In addition, we would like to remind you that the College does offer funding ( to international citizens including the Ithaca Leadership Scholarship (

Ithaca College Vision: Ithaca College strives to become the standard of excellence for residential comprehensive colleges, fostering intellect, creativity, and character in an active, student-centered learning community.
For more information, please visit:


On October 3, 2011, Dr. Isa Sarac, President of Virginia International University (VIU) and Mrs. Hilary Kozikowski, Academic Coordinator for the School of Business, met with U.S. Ambassador Kh.Bekhbat at the Mongolian Embassy in Washington, D.C in effort to forge a lasting relationship with our neighbors.

“It’s very important, especially to the Mongolian students who want to come start a career and build their future.”, mentioned Ambassador Kh.Bekhba.

The Ambassador also stated that the Mongolian population is growing in Virginia, and he encourages us to build cultural exchanges within the local community to continue the support of young people who come to study abroad.
For more information, please visit:

US Scholarships Updates

I. Financial Aid

UG: Eastern Illinois University Scholarships for New International Students
UG: College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University Scholarships
UG: Fresno Pacific University President̢۪s Scholarship
UG/Grad: East Tennessee State University Academic Merit Scholarship
UG/Grad: Southern Oregon University Cascade & Siskiyou International Student Scholarships
UG/Grad: CollegeWeekLive $1,000 Scholarship
Grad/Postgrad/Postdoc: The University of Michigan Law School Fellowships

II. Campus News

• Live Online: College Week Live International Day October 13th
• International Students Get Job Search Tips at Seminar
• University of Missouri Celebrates International Day
• University of California Davis Announces Global Achievement Program

I. Financial Aid


Eastern Illinois University is proud to announce scholarships for new international students! Undergraduate students that have an incoming GPA of 3.5 - 4.0 will receive a special scholarship rate which allows them at least a $12,500 savings on tuition per year. The rate is locked in for four years for a potential $50,000 savings. Students do not need to maintain 3.5 or higher GPA to retain special rate.

Undergraduate students with an incoming GPA of 2.75 - 3.49 are also eligible for a scholarship for up to $12,000 savings on tuition per year. Students must apply and be selected for this scholarship.
For more information, please visit:


The College of Saint Benedict and Saint John's University welcome international students from around the world. We currently enroll 262 international students from 47 countries. We also annually attract 10-12 international students to our graduate School of Theology, and another 75-80 international students to our Prep School (a secondary school) located on the Saint John's University campus.

Scholarships for international students range from $5,000-$19,500 per year (4 year renewable scholarships). Students apply for scholarships by applying for admission. International student scholarships are awarded based on academic achievement and financial need. Students are also eligible for on-campus student employment. Full-time on-campus employment is available during the summer months of May, June, July and August.
For more information, please visit:


Fresno Pacific is the Central Valley's only accredited Christian university, offering leading academic programs, and ethical and spiritual development through traditional bachelor's degree, adult degree completion, master's, certificate and credentialing programs.

Each year, FPU offers over $8 million in aid to help make our personal approach to a university education affordable. The President’s Scholarship awards $11,000 to international students who meet the following eligibility requirements:

• 3.6 high school GPA
• 1100 SAT (combined math and critical reading, excluding writing portion) or 24 ACT
• Early application is recommended, as there is limited space
• Live on campus for a minimum of two years
• Maintain a 3.0 GPA
• Participate in President’s Leadership course
For more information, please visit:


East Tennessee State University prepares students to become productive, enlightened citizens who actively serve their communities and our world. Education is the university’s foremost goal. ETSU provides outstanding programs of study, enhanced access to education, distinctive education and research opportunities, and a variety of distance education offerings to attract students from around the region and the world. ETSU affirms that a diverse population is necessary for the intellectual, social, economic, and professional development of our campus and regional communities.

The International Students Academic Merit Scholarship is open to new international students seeking a graduate or undergraduate degree. The scholarship covers 50 percent of the total of in and out-of-state tuition and maintenance fees only. No additional fees or costs are covered. The award is available for:

•Eight semesters for undergraduate recipients
•Five semesters for recipients seeking a Master’s degree, or commensurate with the length of the program.
•Eight semesters for doctoral students, or commensurate with the length of the program (see ETSU graduate catalog).
•Scholarship can be applied to summer semesters
For more information, please visit:


Southern Oregon University is the public liberal arts university of the West. Here’s what that means to you and your family. Our liberal arts programs are intellectually challenging, creative and practical. You’ll be learning more than theory – you’ll be connecting what you learn in class with the community outside in internships, capstone projects and undergraduate research.

Cascade and Siskiyou International Student Scholarships are for international undergraduates, graduates, and graduating IEP students at SOU. The annual amount awarded will depend upon the number of enrolled credits each quarter. This award will continue each quarter as long as the student is registered at SOU full-time and maintains at least a 2.75 (on a 4.0 scale) average in all courses each quarter providing funding is available.
For more information, please visit:


CollegeWeekLive is giving away a $1,000 scholarship to one lucky student who attends International Day on October 13th! Just login to be eligible!
For more information, please visit:


The University of Michigan Law School is pleased to announce that Michigan Grotius Fellowships are available for LLM and SJD applicants with superior academic and professional achievement in any area of law.

Grotius Fellows are free to pursue their chosen program of graduate legal study and are not subject to any additional academic requirements. In a typical year, between 30 and 40 percent of graduate students attending the University of Michigan Law School have been selected as Grotius Fellows.
For more information, please visit:

II. Campus News


College Week Live International Day, a special event for non-U.S. students, will take place on October 13th, 2011. International students will be able to chat live with admission representatives at over 80 colleges. They can also ask real international students questions about campus life, available via live video. In addition, presentations from EducationUSA about applying to university abroad, getting your visa and test preparation will be available during the event. This event is free to international students - register today!
For more information, please visit:


About 50 Northwestern students from all over the world met in Norris University Center Tuesday to receive tips on finding employment. The Job Search for International Students, a seminar sponsored by University Career Services, hosted lectures about how to turn being an international student into an advantage in the job market.

Manfred Bauer, a first-year Medill graduate student from Guatemala, said he attended the seminar to get a better understanding of the American job market.

"This is my first time jumping into the U.S. labor market and I want to find out more about it," said Bauer, who has been in the U.S. for a month.

During the seminar, UCS career counselor Christina Siders discussed basic challenges international students may face in looking for a job.
For more information, please visit:


University of Missouri celebrated its fourth International Day last week. Every year, MU declares the last Tuesday of September as MU International Day and promotes cultural and racial diversity on campus.

The event began with a grand flag ceremony in front of the Columns, featuring a record-breaking number of flags. MU International Day serves the following objectives.

• To recognize and promote the awareness of international diversity of MU community
• To recognize and inform about the unique resources represented by the international community here at MU
• To encourage student to seek out a global perspective, challenge their preconceived notions, and become global citizens.
For more information, please visit:


UC Davis offers a new program for international high school graduates who wish to participate in a one-year foundation program of academic and English language courses. The Global Achievement Program is designed to assist foreign High School graduates who meet the academic requirements for admission to the University of California-Davis, but who need to improve their language skills to meet the English language requirements. The program offers a rigorous foundation year of language and academic preparation coursework to help students succeed academically at the University of California, Davis.

The complete Global Achievement Program application package and all supplementary materials must be received by Tuesday, November 1, 2011 for consideration for the winter 2012 (January - September), admission cycle.
For more information, please visit:


Vectors and loops are two tools drawn from computer programming that can be very useful when manipulating data. Their primary use is to perform a large number of similar computations using a relatively small program. Some of the more complicated types of data manipulation can only reasonably be done using vectors and loops.

A vector is a set of variables that are linked together because they represent similar things. The purpose of the vector is to provide a single name that can be used to access any of the entire set of variables. A loop is used to tell the computer to perform a set of procedures a specified number of times. Often times we need to perform the same transformation on a large number of variables. By using a loop, we only need to define the transformation once, and can then tell the computer to do the same thing to all the variables using a loop.

If you have computer-programming experience then you have likely come across these ideas before. However, what SPSS calls a “vector” is typically referred to as an “array” in most programming languages. If you are familiar with arrays and loops from a computer programming course, you are a step ahead. Vectors and loops are used in data manipulation in more or less the same way that arrays and loops are used in standard computer programming.

Vectors can only be defined and used in syntax. Before you can use a vector you first need to define it. You must specify the name of the vector and list what variables are associated with it. Variables referenced by a vector are called “elements” of that vector. You declare a vector using the following syntax.

vector Vname = varX1 to varX2.

If the variables in the vector have not already been declared, you can do so as part of the vector statement. For more information on this, see page 904 of the
SPSS Base SyntaxReference Guide. The following are all acceptable vector declarations.

vector V = v1 to v8.
vector Myvector = entry01 to entry64.
vector Grade = grade1 to grade12.
vector Income = in1992 to in2000.

The vector is given the name Vname and is used to reference a set of variables defined by the variable list. The elements in the vector must be declared using the syntax first variable to last variable. You cannot list them out individually. This means that the variables to be included in a vector must all be grouped together in your data set.

Vectors can be used in transformation statements just like variables. However, the vector itself isn’t able to hold values. Instead, the vector acts as a mediator between your statement and the variables it references. The variables included in a vector are placed in a specific order, determined by the declaration statement. So if you give SPSS a vector and an order number (referred to as the index), it knows what specific element you want to access. You do not need to know what the exact name of the variable is - you just need to know its location in the vector.
References to items within a vector are typically made using the format

vname (index)

where vname is the name of the vector, and index is the numerical position of the desired element. Using this format, you can use a vector to reference a variable in any place that you would normally insert a variable name. For example, all of the following would be valid SPSS statements, assuming that we had defined the four variables above.

compute V(4) = 6.
if (Myvector(30)='house') correct = correct + 1.
compute sum1 = Grade(1) + Grade(2) + Grade(3).
compute change = Income(9) - Income(1).

Note that the index used by a vector only takes into account the position of elements in the vector - not the names of the variables. To reference the variable in1993 from in the Income vector above, you would use the phrase income(2), not income(1993).

Using vectors this way doesn’t provide us with much of an advantage - we are not really saving ourselves any effort by referring to a particular variable as Myvector(1) instead of entry01. The advantage comes in with the fact that the index of the vector itself can be a variable. In this case, the element that the vector will reference will depend on the value of the index variable. So the exact variable that is changed by the statement

compute Grade(t) = Grade(t) + 1.

depends on the value of t when this statement is executed. If t has the value of 1, then the variable grade1 will be incremented by 1. If t has a value of 8, then the variable grade8 will be incremented by 1. This means that the same statement can be used to perform many different things, simply depending what value you assign to t. This allows you to use vectors to write “generic” sections of code, where you control exactly what the code does by assigning different
values to the index variables.

Vectors are most useful when they are combined with loops. A loop is a statement that lets you tell the computer to perform a set of commands a specified number of times. In SPSS you can tell the computer to perform a loop by using the following code:

loop loop_variable = lower_limit to upper_limit.
--commands to be repeated appear here--
end loop.

When SPSS encounters a loop statement, what it does first is set the value of the loop variable to be equal to the lower limit. It then performs all of the commands inside the loop until it reaches the end loop statement. At that point the computer adds 1 to the loop variable, and then compares it to the upper limit. If the new value of the loop variable is less than or equal to the upper limit, it goes back to the beginning of the loop and goes through all of the commands again. If the new value is greater than the upper limit, the computer then moves to the statement after the end loop statement. Basically, this means that the computer performs the statements inside the loop a total number of times equal to (upper limit - lower limit + 1).
The following is an example of an SPSS program that uses a loop to calculate a sum:

compute x = 0.
loop #t = 4 to 8.
+ compute x = x + #t.
end loop.

The first line simply initializes the variable count to the value of zero. The second line defines the conditions of the loop. The loop variable is named t, and starts with a value of 4. The loop cycles until the value of t is greater than 8. This causes the program to perform a total of 5 cycles. During each cycle the current value of t is added to x. At the end of this set of statements, the variable x would have the value of 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 = 30.

In this example, the loop variable is denoted as a .scratch variable. because its first letter is a number sign (#). When something is denoted as a scratch variable in SPSS it is not saved in the final data set. Typically we are not interested in storing the values of our loop variables, so it is common practice to denote them as scratch variables. For more information on scratch variables see page 32 of the SPSS Base Syntax Reference Guide.

You will also notice the plus sign (+) placed before the compute statement in line 3. SPSS needs you to start all new commands in the first column of each line. Here we wish to indent the command to indicate that it is part of the loop. We therefore put the plus symbol in the first column which tells SPSS that the actual command starts later on the line.

Just in case you were wondering, the first statement setting x = 0 is actually necessary for the sum to be calculated. Most programming languages, including SPSS syntax, start variables with missing values. Adding anything to a missing value produces a missing value, so we must explicitly start the variable count at zero to be able to obtain the sum.

The Power of Combining Vectors and Loops
Though you can work with vectors and loops alone, they were truly designed to be used together. A combination of vectors and loops can save you incredible amounts of time when performing certain types of repetitive transformations. Consider the characteristics of vectors and loops. A vector lets you reference a set of related variables using a single name and an index. The index can be a variable or a mathematical expression involving one or more variables. A loop repeatedly performs a set of commands, incrementing a loop variable after each cycle. What would happen if a statement inside of a loop referenced a vector using the loop variable as the index? During each cycle, the loop variable increases by 1. So during each cycle, the vector would refer to a different variable. If you correctly design the upper and lower limits of your loop, you could use a loop to perform a transformation on every element of a vector.

For an example, let’s say that you conducted a reaction-time study where research participants observed strings of letters on the screen and judged whether they composed a real word or not. In your study, you had a total of 200 trials in several experimental conditions. You want to analyze your data with an ANOVA to see if the reaction time varies by condition, but you find that the
data has a right skew (which is common). To use ANOVA, you will need to transform the data so that it has a normal distribution, which involves taking the logarithm of the response time on each trial. In terms of your data set, what you need is a set of 200 new variables whose values are equal to the logarithms of the 200 response time variables. Without using vectors or loops, you would need to write 200 individual transformation statements to create each log variable from the corresponding response time variable. Using vectors and loops, however, we can do the same work with the following simple program. The program assumes that the original response time variables are rt001 to rt200, and the desired log variables will be lrt001 to lrt200.

vector Rtvector = rt001 to rt200.
vector Lvector = lrt001 to lrt200.
loop #item = 1 to 200.
+ compute Lvector(#item) = log(Rtvector(#item)).
end loop.

The first two statements set up a pair of vectors, one to represent the original response time variables and one to represent the transformed variables. The third statement creates a loop with 200 cycles. Each cycle of the loop corresponds to a trial in the experiment. The fourth line actually performs the desired transformation. During each cycle it takes one variable from Lvector and sets it equal to the log of the corresponding variable in Rtvector. The fifth
line simply ends the loop. By the time this program completes, it will have created 200 new variables holding the log values that you desire.

In addition to greatly reducing the number of programming lines, there are other advantages to performing transformations using vectors and loops. If you need to make a change to the transformation you only need to change a single statement. If you write separate transformations for each variable, you must change every single statement anytime you want to change the specifics of the transformation. It is also much easier to read programs that use loops than programs with large numbers of transformation statements. The loops naturally group together transformations that are all of the same type, whereas with a list you must examine each individual transformation to find out what it does.